Information about sexual reproduction
The genetic information passed from parent to offspring is contained in genes carried by chromosomes in the nucleus.
Sexual reproduction produces offspring that resemble their parents, but are not identical to them. Asexual reproduction produces offspring - clones - that are genetically identical to their parents.
Plants can be cloned artificially using cuttings or tissue culture. Animals can be cloned using embryo transplants or fusion cell cloning.
Organisms have sex cells called gametes. In human beings, the male sex cells are called sperm and the female sex cells are called eggs, or ova.
Sexual reproduction happens when a male gamete and a female gamete join.
This fusion of gametes is called fertilisation. Sexual
reproduction allows some of the genetic information from each parent to mix, producing offspring that resemble their parents, but are not identical to them. In this way, sexual reproduction leads to variety in the offspring. Animals and plants can reproduce using sexual reproduction.
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Sexual reproduction occurs in many one-celled organisms and in all
multicellular plants and animals. In higher invertebrates and in all vertebrates it is the exclusive form of reproduction, except in the few cases in which parthenogenesis (it is characteristic of the rotifers), especially insects,
Sexual reproduction is essentially cellular in nature, i.e., it
involves the fertilization fertilization, in biology, process in the reproduction of both plants and animals, involving the union of two unlike sex cells (gametes), the sperm and the ovum, followed by the joining of their nuclei.It involves fertalisation of one sex cell (gamete) by another, producing a new cell (called a zygote), which develops
into a new organism.
The union of two isogametes (structurally identical but differing physiologically)( they look similar, but contain different genetic material) is called isogamy, or conjugation, and occurs only in some lower forms (e.g., Spirogyra and some protozoa).
of two clearly differing kinds of gametes, distinguished as the ovum
, in biology, specialized plant or animal sex cell, also called the egg, or egg cell. It is the female sex cell, or female gamete; the male gamete is the sperm.
Multicellular plants alternate sexually reproducing, or gametophyte gametophyte , phase of plant life cycles in which the gametes, i.e., egg and sperm, are produced. The gametophyte is haploid, that is, each cell contains a single complete set of chromosomes, and arises from the germination of a haploid spore.